How to deal with trauma?
Everyone in our lives will inevitably bump into bumps and cause trauma. What should we do at this time? Don't panic. Let's introduce everyone to the wound dressing treatment today.
01 closed trauma:
More common in blunt trauma, falls and bruises, no wounds on the surface. Swelling and bruising at the wound can be associated with fractures and visceral injuries.
02 open damage:
Seen in sharp injuries and other serious injuries, there are wounds on the surface, increased chance of infection, and more blood loss.
03 Multiple injuries:
The same injury factor causes damage to more than two anatomical parts of the body.
04 compound injury:
It is the injury of different nature caused by different injury factors simultaneously or one after the other.
Traumatic field rescue four technologies
First, stop the bleeding: the bleeding site should be elevated
"Traumatic bleeding" is the most common trauma in our lives, ranging from minor cuts and scratches to large areas of bleeding after trauma. Adult blood generally 7% of body weight - 8% when the blood loss exceeds 15% of blood volume, blood pressure, there will be thirst, sweating and other symptoms; and, when more than 40%, life would be Threats, unconsciousness, shock and other symptoms. Therefore, rapid hemostasis is of the utmost importance in emergency trauma.
Before bleeding, identify the type of bleeding. Arterial hemorrhage, the bleeding rate is fast, was jet-like, and the color is bright red; venous bleeding, the bleeding rate is slow, dark red; capillary bleeding, the blood slowly exuded, showing bright red. For hemorrhage after trauma, the commonly used methods for hemostasis are compression dressing and acupressure.
In addition, there is also "intracerebral hemorrhage" after trauma, with complete skin and rupture of blood vessels or bleeding of internal organs. If internal bleeding is suspected, the patient's activities should be reduced and they should be sent to the hospital for treatment as soon as possible.
Pressure dressing is the first method to consider when traumatic bleeding occurs. The method is simple and easy, and wounds can be used anywhere in the body. The operation method is divided into three steps:
1. Let the injured sit or lie down and raise the injured area;
2, with clean, sterile gauze, or breathable, non-sticky, good absorbent temporary wound dressing, first aid by hand directly on the gauze was pressed for 5 - 10 mins;
3 , after stopping the blood, use a bandage roll, bandage or cloth, handkerchief, etc., tightly wound, bandage the wound.
The acupressure method uses a finger to press the arteries in the proximal part of the wound so that the blood vessels are pressed against the bones, thus blocking blood flow. The acupressure arterial method is applicable to limbs such as hands and feet. However, this method affects the blood supply of the tissue, so it can only be used for a short period of time and should not exceed 10 minutes.
If conditional, apply clean water before covering the wound to clean the contaminated wound. When the bleeding speed is fast, stop the bleeding first; if the blood soaks the gauze covering the wound, it is best not to remove it, but to apply dressing again, and then use Bandages. In case of emergency, the wound can be stopped directly by hand to stop bleeding
Second, dressing: joints are wrapped around herringbone
The main purpose of dressing is to stop bleeding and protect the wound. Commonly used materials are bandages and bandages. In emergency situations, cloth or clothing may be used instead.
No matter what material is used for dressing, the tightness must be taken care of. The injured limb will continue to swell, so check the circulation every 10 minutes. When the blood circulation is not good, the local skin will be white or purple, accompanied by local sting or paralysis. When self-made bandages are used, the fabric can be torn into strips. When bandaging the upper extremities, the width of the bandage is preferably 5 cm , and the best for bandaging the lower extremities is 7.5 cm . The commonly used methods for dressing wounds are spiral packing and herringbone dressing.
Herringbone dressing is more suitable for hemostasis of wounds at joints such as elbows, knees, and heel joints.
After hemostasis, the elbows and knee joints are bent at 90 degrees. The bandages are placed on the elbows and knee joints. The dressing is first wound around the ring, and then herringbone is wound from the inside to the outside. Each ring covers 2 of the previous lap. /3 , after winding 3 "people", finally wrapped around to fix.
The main function of the bandage is to fix the hemostatic bandage, fix the fracture, and raise the injured leg. A square cotton cloth with a side length of about 1 meter can be cut diagonally to become two triangular towels when making a self-made triangle towel. In emergencies, temporary strips such as scarves and belts can be temporarily replaced.
The common method for the triangle is â€œbig hand hangingâ€. The steps are as follows:
1. Injured forearm, supporting hand and wrist higher than the elbow at an angle of 80 degrees;
2. Place the full length of the girdle between the forearm and the chest and extend it to the elbow.
3. Pass the upper, uninjured shoulder above the back of the neck and cover the lower arm with the tail and the forearm to tie it up at the cleft of the clavicle. To reduce friction, it is best to place cushions, towels, etc. on the knots.
Spiral dressing is the simplest method. After hemostasis is applied, the wound is placed under the dressing and wound from bottom to top and from inside to outside. Each circle should cover 2/3 of the previous lap until the dressing is completely covered. This method is applicable to wound hemostasis for forearm, upper arm, calf, etc.
Third, fixed : first identify the location of the fracture
Fractures are quite common injuries in accidents and are generally divided into closed and open fractures.
The principle of handling fractures is to fix and prevent misalignment. Different parts of the human body have different signs of fracture, identify physical signs, determine the location of the fracture, and determine the type of fracture after the first aid is very important.
Bent bones and bones for a hundred days, after the fracture must pay attention to rest, nursed back to health, so as to restore health as soon as possible.
Common fractures and treatment methods
1. Limb fracture:
Limb fractures are the most common. The treatment is: use both hands to stabilize and support the injured area and limit the movement; if the upper limb is injured, apply a bandage to fix the injured limb to the trunk; if the lower limb is injured, the injured limb can be fixed to the health limb, or a bandage can be used. Splints were bandaged and fixed; after dressing, the feeling, activity and blood circulation at the end of the injured limb need to be checked immediately. For open fractures, try not to wash the wound with water, and do not apply drugs; do not attempt to reset the fractured ends that have been exposed to the outside. Cover the wound with gauze, pack it properly, and wait until emergency personnel arrive at the scene.
2. Skull fracture:
If the patient becomes unconscious after injury, a skull fracture should be suspected. In addition to vomiting and convulsions, the victim may also have bleeding or bloody fluid (cerebrospinal fluid) at the ear and nose. When the skull is fractured, the most important thing is to keep the head stable. The head can be raised slightly to let the wounded lie still. If the wounded person has fluid on one ear, head side to side, do not plug the ear hole.
3. Cervical fractures:
Cervical fractures are often accompanied by cervical dislocation, cervical neck fractures, head and limbs can not move, open mouth difficult. When checking, do not allow the injured person to turn over. Do not turn the head left or right. Do not raise the victim to drink or feed. Otherwise, the spinal cord may be constricted. When the first aid is applied, the cervical collar is used to fix the neck, and local materials can also be used to knead the clothes into two groups, which are stuffed on both sides of the head and neck of the injured person so that the head and the neck can not be rotated freely. Special attention is paid to the carelessness of cervical vertebrae fractures. If you have no alternative, do not move your injured person and wait for a doctor to come to the rescue.
4 rib fractures:
Rib fractures may be single or multiple rib fractures. Symptoms of a single fracture are mild, and the injured only feels chest pain and aggravates with the breathing. When there are multiple fractures, breathing is difficult, and abnormal breathing is common, that is, the chest collapses when inhaling. At this time, the injured person should breathe slowly and gently to reduce chest movements during breathing to relieve pain.
Fourth, handling: at least two people lift the injury
Handling is the last link in trauma emergency. The purpose is to take the injured person out of the danger zone and reduce pain and secondary injury. The special reminder is that we must choose appropriate handling methods and tools according to the injury situation. When the situation is not clear, we must not act rashly.
There are five major precautions for handling the wounded.
1. First aid, then move;
2. Do not shake the wounded body as much as possible;
3. Observe breathing, body temperature, hemorrhage, complexion changes, etc. at any time, and pay attention to keep the patient warm;
4. When personnel and equipment are not ready for improvement, they should not be moved at will.
5. The best way to transport the injured is to take an ambulance. The journey must be steady and not bumpy.
Hand-handling methods commonly used in emergency situations.
â†’Single person handling is suitable for the wounded with minor injury, back, hold or support;
â†’ Two people carry one person to care for both lower limbs and one person to care for the waist;
â†’ The three-person transportation is suitable for wounded patients with suspected ribs and lumbar fractures. One person supports the scapula, one carries the waist and buttocks, and one supports two lower limbs. At the same time, the trio gently lifts the wounded to a hard stretcher.
â†’ More than one person is suitable for patients with cervical and spinal injuries. The principle of handling is to keep the injured person in a straight line. The head and neck cannot be bent. If the injured person is lying on the ground, there should be a special person kneeling in front of the injured person's head and holding the injured man's jaw with both hands. Slow straight traction to keep the head and neck in a neutral position.
The information in this article comes from the Internet and was reorganized and edited by China Rescue Equipment Network.
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