Apple is a kind of fruit that everyone likes, sweet and nutritious. However, the occurrence of apple bitter disease has led to a decline in the yield and quality of apples. The following is a brief introduction to the prevention and treatment of apple bitter disease.
Apple bitter pox symptoms
Symptoms begin to appear as the fruit matures and the storage period continues to develop. Most of the lesions occur at the top of the fruit, that is, near the concave part, but less near the fruit shoulder. The flesh under the peel of the diseased department first developed lesions, and the skin of the disease appeared a circular spot centered on the lenticels. This spot is dark green on green or yellow varieties, dark red on red varieties, and slightly sunken. In the late stage, the flesh shrinks and the epidermis is necrotic, and the brown spots of the depression appear, which are 2-3 mm deep and have a bitter taste. There are usually 3-5 lesions on the diseased fruit, weighing 60-80, all over the fruit.
The cause of apple bitter disease
Apple bitter pox is mainly caused by physiological calcium deficiency in the tree. It is over-pruned, partial application, late application of nitrogen fertilizer, excessive growth of trees and poor orchard. The fruit has a large rainfall during the growing season and too much watering, which is easy to aggravate the disease.
Prevention and treatment of apple bitter disease
Use resistant varieties and rootstocks. There are obvious differences in the susceptibility of different varieties and rootstocks to bitter acne in production. Therefore, resistant varieties and rootstocks should be selected. For severely ill varieties, high-resistance varieties should be used to reduce the harm.
Improve cultivation and management conditions. Reasonable pruning, timely harvest, increase application of organic fertilizer and green manure, strictly prevent partial application and late application of nitrogen fertilizer, improve soil, pay attention to watering in early spring, timely drainage in rainy season, timely and appropriate application of nitrogen fertilizer to prevent excessive accumulation of ammonia nitrogen. Spraying photosynthetic nutrient film fertilizer can help fruit trees absorb a lot of light fertilizer, light energy, light, compatible with conventional fertilizers and nutrients to supply plant growth and development to the limit.
The leaves and fruits are sprayed with calcium. Spraying once every 2-3 weeks after the full flowering period until harvesting; or red varieties spray 150-200 times of calcium chloride 2-3 months before the onset of the previous year; yellow and green varieties sprayed with calcium nitrate 4-6 times However, it should be noted that temperatures above 21 Â°C are prone to phytotoxicity, so spray before spraying to determine the appropriate concentration. The second is to increase the application of calcium fertilizer: prevention and treatment of apple bitter pox in the 30 days after apple Xiehua, every 15-20 days, spray once 0.3% calcium nitrate solution, after bagging can not be directly sprayed on the fruit surface should be It is better to use 2-3 times of products that can promote the calcium transfer of leaves, such as pipi. When the application of the base fertilizer in autumn, the application of bone powder increases both organic matter and calcium.
Strengthen storage management. Before the storage, the fruit is impregnated with a 2-8% calcium salt solution and a new high-fat membrane, such as 8% calcium chloride and 1-6% calcium nitrate. During the storage period, the temperature inside the crucible should not be controlled to be higher than 0 Â°C - 2 Â°C, and good permeability is protected. Conditional use of a small air conditioning library, if necessary, the post-harvest apples can be placed in a 1 Â° C pre-cooling tank to cool, and then into storage, not only the storage life is extended, but also reduce the incidence. The third is to strengthen the management of storage period: before the apple storage, 2%-8% calcium chloride or calcium nitrate solution should be used to soak the fruit; pre-cooling before storage, the temperature before storage is kept at 0-2 Â°C, and the condition is adopted. Storage.
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