â€œMiniâ€ cabbage is a new type of variety in the Chinese cabbage family. At present, the common autumn-sown cabbage varieties are generally large (usually weighing about 5 kg per plant), which is not conducive to the purchase, handling and storage of the public. In addition, due to the long growing period of common Chinese cabbage varieties, the suitable sowing date is in early August, and this time is high temperature and rainy season, which is not conducive to soil preparation and easy to be infected with diseases such as viral diseases, soft rot and downy mildew. Compared with ordinary Chinese cabbage, "mini" cabbage has the following characteristics:
1. Small plant type, the weight of a single plant is about 1 kilogram, which is convenient for the public to buy and transport; 2. Early maturity, can delay planting, avoid high temperature and rainy season, is conducive to land fertilization and other operations, and reduce the occurrence of diseases; The quality is good, the heart leaves are light yellow, the taste is soft, the flavor is strong, and the effect of â€œopening the potâ€ is caused when stewing.
The "mini" cabbage is generally about 7,000 kilograms per mu. The wholesale price of the ground is 1-1.4 yuan per kilogram, which is 60%-80% higher than that of ordinary Chinese cabbage, but it is much lower than that of the doll dish, which is acceptable to the general public. Although the "mini" cabbage seed input increased by 30 yuan per mu compared with the common cabbage variety, it increased by 3,000-5,000 yuan compared with the cultivation of ordinary Chinese cabbage, and the increase rate was over 50%. The following describes the cultivation techniques in detail.
First, select excellent varieties
Using the "Betty" variety, the plant grows strong, the whole growth period is 65 days, the plant height is about 30 cm, the plant development degree is 35 cm, the outer leaves are green, the leaf ball is hug, the tube shape, the inner leaves are yellow, and the leaf ball is 20 cm long. The diameter of 12 cm, the weight of a single dish is about 1 kg, the taste quality is good, the disease resistance is strong, the convulsion resistance is good, and the adaptability is good.
Second, clean the countryside
It is not the plot to plant cabbage and cruciferous vegetables in the previous year and the former, and the residual plants, rotten leaves and weeds are cleaned up in time after harvesting, and transported to the outside to concentrate on high temperature composting and so on. Processing.
Third, the application of organic fertilizer
Apply 4,000 kg of fully decomposed and finely divided organic fertilizer or 2000 kg of commercial organic fertilizer per mu of base fertilizer, two thirds of which are applied before the cultivated land, and the remaining one third is applied when the alfalfa is used.
Fourth, suitable sowing
The plots in the plains such as Daxing and Shunyi in the suburbs of Beijing are directly planted on August 18-22. The mountain plots such as Yanqing, Miyun and Huairou are directly planted on August 12-18, and can also be seeded 4-8 days earlier than the live broadcast date. When 3-6 pieces of true leaves are transplanted. Clay and loamy land blocks should be cultivated in small sorghum, and sandy loam can be planted in flat. After the soil is ploughed and leveled, the sputum is made at a spacing of about 70 cm. Each row is two rows, the average row spacing is about 35 cm, the plant spacing is 20-25 cm, and the planting density per acre is 7000-8000. Use the seeding method of opening or ditching, 2-3 seeds per hole, 0.5-1 cm of soil thickness, directly planted, about 100 grams per mu.
V. Field management
Maintain soil moisture: germination and seedling stage, prevent soil drying and compaction after sowing, timely pouring small water to reduce ground temperature, promote growth, and prevent the occurrence of viral diseases.
Cultivating loose soil: cultivating loose soil 2-3 times in the seedling stage to loosen the surface to prevent soil compaction, especially after setting the seedling, the depth is 5-6 cm, combined with water control seedlings for about 10 days. Weeding and weeding should still be carried out before the ridge is closed, but it should be carried out when the leaves are soft on sunny days to avoid damage to the leaves. Master the principle of â€œdeep trenches, shallow backsâ€.
Inter-miao, re-emergence: seedlings in the cross and time seedlings, remove the weak and crowded seedlings, and fill the lack of seedlings and ridges early, set the seedlings at 6-8 leaves. The seedlings and the seedlings should be carried out on a sunny day. The seedlings should be carried out in the evening, and watered in time to promote the slow seedlings after planting.
Management during the balling period: the water absorption and the maximum amount of fertilizer during the ball-forming period, combined with the characteristics of fertilizer, should be applied with NPK fertilizer. After the end of the seedlings, 500 kg of fully decomposed organic fertilizer can be applied per acre (or ditch). It is better to apply 100 kg of decomposed slag or bean cake per acre. It can also apply 10 kg of NPK fertilizer per 50 mu of water in the initial and middle stages of the ball. Watering is usually done once every 5-7 days, requiring a uniform amount of water to prevent flooding. Stop watering 7-10 days before harvest.
Sixth, pest control
Lepidoptera pests such as Brassica chinensis: When the dew is not dry at night or in the morning, it is sprayed with biopesticide Baicao No. 1000 solution or 25% Diflubenzuron suspension 600 times.
Downy mildew: September is the peak period. It should be watered in an appropriate amount. Do not water too much at one time. In the initial stage, spray 2% of biological pesticides, 500% of Wuyincin or 72.2% of Pulk's 600 times.
Seven, suitable harvest
The harvesting period of â€œminiâ€ cabbage is the same as that of ordinary winter storage of Chinese cabbage. It is harvested before the winter festival in early November. When the shape of the top of the leaf ball is flattened from the tip, it will no longer grow and can be harvested. . It can be stored until the Spring Festival at around 2 Â°C in the dark. (Cao Hua is a member of the expert advisory group of this newspaper)
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